How to Install Apache with Virtual Hosts on Debian 10

Apache, popularly referred to as the Apache HTTP server, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server maintained by the Apache Foundation. It is the leading web server commanding a 35% market share on...

Apache, popularly referred to as the Apache HTTP server, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server maintained by the Apache Foundation. It is the leading web server commanding a 35% market share on the internet with Nginx coming second with 24% .

Apache is highly reliable, flexible, easy to install and ships numerous features which make it popular amongst developers and Linux enthusiasts. Additionally, it is regularly maintained and updated by Apache foundation and this helps in fixing software bugs and improving its overall efficiency. By the time of penning down this article, the latest version of Apache is 2.4.39.

In this guide, we will walk you through the steps on how to install Apache web server on Debian 10.

Prerequisites

Before we get started, ensure the following requirements are met:

  1. An instance of Debian 10.
  2. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) pointing to the server.
  3. In this guide, we use the domain tecmint.com pointing to a Debian 10 system with an IP address 192.168.0.104.
  4. A good internet connection.


With our pre-flight check done, let’s get started

Step 1: Update the Debian 10 System Repository

The first step in installing Apache on Debian 10 is updating the system repositories. To achieve this, log in as a regular user and using sudo privileges run the command.

$ sudo apt update -y
Update Debian 10 Repository

Update Debian 10 Repository

Step 2: Install Apache on Debian 10

Installing Apache is a piece of cake and pretty straightforward. Once you have successfully updated the system repositories, run the command below to install Apache on Debian 10.

$ sudo apt install apache2 -y
Install Apache in Debian 10

Install Apache in Debian 10

Step 3: Checking the Status of Apache Webserver

After successful installation of Apache web server, it’s always recommended to check if the service is running. Most systemd Linux systems will start the service automatically upon installation.

To check the status of Apache webserver execute the command.

$ sudo systemctl status apache2
Check Apache Status

Check Apache Status

If the service is not running, start the service using the command.

$ sudo systemctl start apache2

To enable Apache Web server on boot execute the command.

$ sudo systemctl enable apache2

To restart Apache run.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Step 4: Configure the Firewall to Allow HTTP Port

If UFW firewall is already configured, we need to allow the Apache service across the firewall so that external users can have access to the web server.

To achieve this, we need to allow traffic on port 80 on the firewall.

$ sudo allow 80/tcp

To verify that the port has been allowed on the firewall, run.

$ sudo ufw status
Open Port 80 on UFW Firewall

Open Port 80 on UFW Firewall

Additionally, you can use the netstat command to verify the port as shown.

$ sudo netstat -pnltu
Verify Apache Listening Port

Verify Apache Listening Port

Step 5: Verify Apache HTTP Web Server

With all the settings in place, open your favorite web browser and browse your server’s IP address or FQDN as shown.

http://server-IP-address OR http://server-domain-name
Check Apache Web Page

Check Apache Web Page

Step 6: Configuring Apache Web Server

With Apache web server already set up, its time to host a sample website.

The default Apache webpage file index.html is found at /var/www/html/ which is the webroot directory. You can host a single site or create virtual host files to host multiple sites.

To host a single site, you can modify the index.html file located on the webroot directory.

But first, make a backup of the file as shown.

$ sudo mv /var/www/html/index.html /var/www/html/index.html.bak

Now let’s create a new index.html file.

$ sudo nano /var/www/html/index.html

Let’s add some HTML sample content as shown.

<html> <head> <title>Welcome to crazytechgeek</title> </head> <body> <h1>Howdy Geeks! Apache web server is up & running</h1> </body>
</html>

Exit the text editor and restart the web server.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Now reload your web browser and notice the changes to your new site.

Check Apache Website

Check Apache Website

Step 7: Creating Virtual Hosts on Apache

If you want your web server to host multiple sites, the best way to go around this is to create virtual hosts in Apache web server. Virtual hosts come in handy when you want to host multiple domains in a single server

First, we need to create a webroot directory for the domain tecmint.com.

$ sudo mkdir -p /var/www/html/tecmint.com/

Next, we shall assign the necessary permissions to the directory using the $USER variable.

$ sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/html/tecmint.com/

Next, assign the necessary permissions of the webroot directory for the domain.

$ sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/html/tecmint.com

Now using your favorite text editor, head out and create sample index.html file.

$ sudo nano /var/www/html/tecmint.com/index.html

Let’s add some HTML sample content as shown.

<html> <head> <title>Welcome to TecMint.com</title> </head> <body> <h1>Howdy Geeks!</h1> </body>
</html>

Save and exit the text editor.

Now, create a virtual host file for the domain using the command shown below.

$ sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/tecmint.com.conf

Now copy and paste the content below and replace the domain tecmint.com with your own domain.

<VirtualHost *:80> ServerAdmin [email protected] ServerName tecmint.com ServerAlias www.tecmint.com DocumentRoot /var/www/html/tecmint.com/ ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>

Save and exit.

At this point, enable the virtual host file as shown.

$ sudo a2ensite tecmint.com.conf

Now let’s disable the default site

$ sudo a2dissite 000-default.conf

To effect the changes, reload the apache webserver.

$ sudo systemctl restart apache2

Now reload your web server and notice the changes for your domain.

Verify Virtual Host on Apache

Verify Virtual Host on Apache

Conclusion

We have come to the end of the tutorial. In this guide, you learned how to install Apache on Debian 10 and also configure virtual hosts to host other domains. Feel welcome to get back to us with your feedback.

Posted by Web Monkey